Active Filters: Layout

We've covered Auto Layout quite bit, but so far we've only been using the classes and APIs that Apple ships. Today we'll start checking out some third-party libraries that can improve our experience when working with Auto Layout.

First up is Cartography from Robert BΓΆhnke. Let's take a look:

Cartography takes the form of a sort of DSL for Auto Layout. It allows us to take conventional UIKit code like this:

    item: editButton,
    attribute: .Right,
    relatedBy: .Equal,
    toItem: launchButton,
    attribute: .Left,
    multiplier: 1.0,
    constant: -8.0

And express it using a new constrain function:

constrain(editButton, launchButton) { editButton, launchButton in
  editButton.right == launchButton.left - 8

We can pass in up to 5 UIView or NSView instances at once, then a closure. In that closure, we'll use ==, >=, or <= operators to define constraints upon the attributes of the view instances. This can really help improve readability:

constrain(viewA) { a in
  // fixed sizes:
  a.height == 44

  // centering inside a parent view:
  a.centerX == a.superview!.centerX

  // inequalities: >= a.superview!.top + 10

But wait, there's more! We can capture the created constraints like this:

let group = constrain(launchButton) { button in  == button.superview!.top
  button.left == button.superview!.left

Then move that button by replacing the captured constraints like this:

constrain(launchButton, replace: group) { button in
  button.bottom == button.superview!.bottom
  button.right  == button.superview!.right

Additionally, it provides helper functions for aligning and distributing:

constrain(viewA, viewB, viewC) { viewA, viewB, viewC in
  align(top: viewA, viewB, viewC)
  distribute(by: 8, horizontally: viewA, viewB, viewC)

Cartography has shortcuts for edges and sizes, operators for setting priorities, and much more! More info can be found at

With additions like UIStackView, Auto Layout has matured into quite a powerful system for managing how our views are arranged on screen. When things go wrong though, it can sometimes be difficult to diagnose the specific cause of the issue. Today we'll look at a few techniques for making sense of the madness caused by... Auto Layout Bugs! 🐞πŸ”ͺπŸ”ͺπŸ”ͺ

Most issues arise from "Unsatisfiable Layouts". That's fancy-talk for "two or more constraints you gave Auto Layout conflict with each other." The solution will of course be different in every case, but here's some sensible things to ask ourselves when an error first occurs:

  • Is translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints set to false on the views we're adding constraints to?

  • Are the priorities of each of constraint, as well as content hugging and compression resistance priorities (Bite #69) what we expect them to be?

  • "Can this required constraint work at a 999 priority?" Remember, Auto Layout will try to get as close to our desired result as possible, while still satisfying all other constraints.


constraint.identifier = "image-fixed-width"

Identifiers help us more easily spot the important bits in those giant log outputs Auto Layout loves to show us. They can be added in code or in Interface Builder.

Log Specific Constraints


When debugging complex layouts, it can sometimes be helpful to look at only the constraints involving a specific problem view or area. We can use this function to grab an array of the constraints affecting a particular axis. Neat.

Brain Surgery

When all else fails, don't be afraid to go in and start temporarily commenting-out or disabling constraints then observe the results. This can often lead to unexpected insights into how constraints are behaving.


A great way to fight Auto Layout issues is to try to catch them before they happen. That means becoming more familiar with Auto Layout, which means practice. For example: When a question or issue comes up, create a new 'dummy' Xcode project. Throw some views and constraints in there and try it out. Tweak some priorities, observe their effects in the isolated environment. When in doubt, try it out!


#112: Layout Guides & Anchors βš“οΈ


Layout Guides & Anchors were added in iOS 9/OS X 10.11 as a more convenient way to add Auto Layout constraints. Let's dive in.

Layout Guides let us create sort of "invisible boxes" that exist solely for the purpose of layout. Instead of adding "spacer" views or using other such tricks, we can add some layout guides to a view, then add some constraints to them. It's a nice way to avoid needless performance wastes like rendering the dummy "spacer" views, and the code itself ends up being much more readable:

var textContainerGuide = UILayoutGuide()

Note: Layout Guides are defined in code using UILayoutGuide on iOS and NSLayoutGuide on OS X.

Anchors are best explained with an example. They allow us to turn verbose code like these manually configured constraints:

NSLayoutConstraint(item: someView,
  attribute: .Leading,
  relatedBy: .Equal,
  toItem: anotherView,
  attribute: .LeadingMargin,
  multiplier: 1.0,
  constant: 0.0
).active = true

NSLayoutConstraint(item: someView,
  attribute: .Trailing,
  relatedBy: .Equal,
  toItem: anotherView,
  attribute: .TrailingMargin,
  multiplier: 1.0,
  constant: 0.0
).active = true

...into a set of much more readable short lines of code (shown below). The new code reads much more easily from left to right, and is much easier to scan and reason about what's going on.

let margins = anotherView.layoutMarginsGuide

someView.leadingAnchor.constraintEqualToAnchor(margins.leadingAnchor).active = true
someView.trailingAnchor.constraintEqualToAnchor(margins.trailingAnchor).active = true

UIView, NSView, and UILayoutGuide all have lots of new anchor properties available to make adding constraints to them much simpler than before. We also get a little extra type safety as a bonus.


#103: UIStackView in Code πŸš₯πŸ“


We covered UIStackView when it was first announced, way back in Bite #16. Today we'll look at how to use it in code to build a section header view:

We'll be stacking 3 regular views: a UIImageView, then a UILabel, and finally a UIButton

Nothing special about them besides fonts/colors, so we've created them off camera.

Here's our first attempt:

stackView = UIStackView(arrangedSubviews: [imageView, label, button])

stackView.axis = .Horizontal
stackView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false



Like in Bite #99, we'll use Auto Layout Visual Format Language to pin the stack view's edges to its superview. Look at that, not bad for our first try!

Those views are close talkers, let's add some spacing:

stackView.spacing = 10.0

Ack! What the heck is going on here?!

Let's break it down: In the default β€˜Fill' distribution mode, if views don't naturally fill the axis of the stack view, the stack view will resize one (or more) according to their hugging priority (covered in Bite #69).

We'll solve our issue by setting a low hugging priority on our label, signaling to the stack view that it be the one to stretch, not our image view.

titleLabel.setContentHuggingPriority(1, forAxis: .Horizontal)

Nice, much room-ier! Finally, let's use one more trick to make the stack view add some padding around its edges:

stackView.layoutMarginsRelativeArrangement = true
stackView.layoutMargins = UIEdgeInsetsMake(7.0, 7.0, 7.0, 7.0)

Success, matches our design perfectly! Download the project at

In Bite #98, we learned how to work with Auto Layout in code. While this helped us gain a ton of flexibility, our code is now a bit... verbose. For simple layouts this won't be a big deal, but for anything complex we would quickly rack of hundreds of lines of code for just our layout. Today we'll look at one solution for this issue: Auto Layout's Visual Format Language. Let's take a look.

Before jumping into code, let's look at the Visual Format Language itself. It's essentially just a string that the system parses and turns into an array of NSLayoutConstraint objects:


The two pipes on the outside represent the superview. The dashes represent spacing, in this case, the system-standard spacing. Views are described with a name in brackets.

When parsed, this would create 2 new constraints: 1 leading and 1 trailing. It would keep the header the standard spacing away from the left and right edges of the superview. To let the system know our views by name we put them in a dictionary:

let views = [ "header": header ]

If we wanted to use a specific spacing amount we could describe that within dashes on the edges of our Visual Format Language:


That's fine for simple spacing, but what if we needed to reference lots of numeric values? We can name those and put them in a dictionary just like our views:


Now that we have a basic understanding, we can add our first set of constraints:

    options: NSLayoutFormatOptions(rawValue: 0),
    metrics: nil,
    views: [ "header": header ]

We can prepend a H: or V: to describe constraints along the horizontal or vertical axes. If we don't prepend either, horizontal is assumed.

We can use parenthesis to describe a view's width or height:


Let's add 2 more constraints to pin our header to the top, and give it a fixed height:

    options: NSLayoutFormatOptions(rawValue: 0),
    metrics: [ "headerHeight": 180.0 ],
    views: [ "header": header ]

We've only scratched the surface of what's possible with Visual Format Language. In the future we'll look at configuring inequalities, constraint priorities, and more.


#98: Auto Layout in Code πŸ“πŸ“


Auto Layout works great in Interface Builder, but it's often helpful to have the flexibility and clarity of wiring up constraints in code. Let's dive in.

We'll add a view and set translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints to false. Normally Interface Builder does this automatically under the hood, but since we're working in code we'll need to set it ourselves. Don't want any funky autoresizing constraints in there meddling around.

let logo = UIView()

logo.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false


When learning to work with Auto Layout in code, it can be helpful to remember that constraints are essentially just linear equations: = multiplier * + constant

To express centering a view inside it's superview, we could write it as: = 1.0 * + 0.0 = 1.0 * + 0.0

Let's look at how to express the same thing (centering our logo view inside it's superview) using NSLayoutConstraint objects in code:

  NSLayoutConstraint(item: logo, attribute: .CenterX, relatedBy: .Equal, toItem: container, attribute: .CenterX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0),
  NSLayoutConstraint(item: logo, attribute: .CenterY, relatedBy: .Equal, toItem: container, attribute: .CenterY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)

Whew! That's a long constructor. The neat part though, is from left-to-right it almost reads like the equations from before. Lastly, we'll assign a fixed size to our logo view. Since there's only 1 view involved, the equation is much simpler:

view.height = 0.0 * nothing + constant.

And finally, in code this looks like:

  NSLayoutConstraint(item: logo, attribute: .Width, relatedBy: .Equal, toItem: nil, attribute: .NotAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 115),
  NSLayoutConstraint(item: logo, attribute: .Height, relatedBy: .Equal, toItem: nil, attribute: .NotAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 70)

Content Compression Resistance Priority controls how the frame of a UIView will be calculated when one or more Auto Layout constraints describe its width or height as being smaller than its intrinsic content size. Let's look at a bare bones example:

Here's a button with a really long name:

We've added a simple constraint telling Auto Layout to try to keep the width of our button at 44 points. Auto Layout does as its told and collapses our button making it completely unreadable. Don't worry, we can use Compression Resistance to stop this.

We select our button in Interface Builder, head over to the size inspector (⌘βŒ₯ + 5), and set it's horizontal Compression Resistance Priority to 1000.

Now, we'll change the priority of our original 44 point width constraint to something less than 1000. We'll use 999 to emphasize the point, but this could be any number from 0 - 999.

Success! Auto Layout now allows our button's intrinsic content size to take precedent over our width contraint:

Now that we understand Compression Resistance, understanding Content Hugging Priority is easy. It works in a very similar manner, but instead of managing whether a view is made smaller than its intrinsic content size, it deals with whether or not a view can be made larger than its intrinsic content size. Let's look at one more example to illustrate this, here's another button:

If we were to add a set of leading and trailing constraints, telling the button to be as wide as the view controller it's sitting on, it might look something like this:

But, if we set the horizontal Content Hugging Priority of our button to 1000, and the priority of those leading and trailing constraints to 999, our **button **becomes nice and small again:


#16: UIStackView 🚦πŸš₯


UIStackView changes everything. New in iOS 9, you can think of UIStackView as an abstraction layer on top of Auto Layout. It arranges it's subviews and manages their constraints for you.

One way to think about UIStackView is as the UIKit-born cousin to WKInterfaceGroup, the main layout component for building Apple Watch apps with WatchKit.

UIStackViews layout their arranged subviews horizontally or vertically, and they provide options for how arranged subviews should be aligned and distributed.

You can of course nest many UIStackViews inside each other to easily and quickly create complex layouts. Let's test it out by creating something super common like a UITableViewCell to display a comment. We'll use 2 horizontal and 1 vertical UIStackView:

UIStackView Pro Tips

  • πŸŒ€ Set views to hidden for easy conditional layout
  • πŸƒ Hide views in animation blocks to animate the re-layout
  • 🎳 Use size-classes to easily alter layout for different environments

Animating between two sets of Auto Layout constraints is quite simple.

All you have to do is update your installed/configured constraints and then call layoutIfNeeded inside of a UIView.animateWith* closure.

class DoorsViewController: UIViewController {
    var open: Bool = false {
        didSet { transition() }

    func transition() {
        self.view.layoutIfNeeded() // force layout before animating

        UIView.animateWithDuration(0.4) {
            // change constraints inside animation block

            // force layout inside animation block

    func updateConstraintsForDoors() {
        leftDoorHorizontalConstraint.constant = open ? -16 : -leftDoorView.bounds.size.width
        rightDoorHorizontalConstraint.constant = open ? -16 : -rightDoorView.bounds.size.width

Download sample project